Antenna Ff Citer Application

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Antenna Ff Citer Application

Antenna Ff Citer Application

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Le-Huy Trinh Le-Huy Trinh Scilit Google Scholar 1, 2, * and Fabien Ferrero Fabien Ferrero Scilit Google Scholar 3

Received: October 3, 2022 / Date Checked: October 21, 2022 / Date Received: October 24, 2022 / Date Issued: November 1, 2022

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This article describes a configurable Digital Tunable Capacitor (DTC) antenna. 120 × 200 mm installed

Wavelength 585 MHz). The proposed structure can operate from 470 to 700 MHz in white space. The antenna system consists of two radiating elements located in the corners of the board. The active components are soldered to the antenna and controlled by a microcontroller inserted through the I2C interface. Using measurements to simulate and estimate antenna impedance, the S11 matches a bandwidth of 39.32% (470–700 MHz), which is less than -6 dB. Furthermore, the numerical results show that the maximum gain achieved varies from -2.2 dB at 470 MHz to 1.87 dB at 700 MHz. Finally, the diversity gain is calculated based on the radiation patterns of the two resonators. The results show that the envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) values ​​for different configurations are below 0.5.

Television white spaces (TVWS) are defined as inactive and unused bands of the UHF spectrum. Bandwidth is defined by different frequency bands depending on the region, for example 470-790 MHz in the EU. and 512-698 MHz in the US. In general, signals in these frequencies have excellent propagation characteristics and can penetrate deep into buildings for long distances. Moreover, with a large relative bandwidth (about 50.8% in the EU and 30.7% in the US), TVWS is a good candidate for mobile multimedia technologies and services [1,2,3,4]. However, there are some limitations in designing broadband antennas with compact size and acceptable radiation performance. Therefore, reconfigurable frequency structures can be an effective solution for this standard. By adding an active antenna, the antenna can change its resonant frequency while maintaining a compact size and covering a sub-GHz broadband [5].

Antenna Ff Citer Application

In general, there are many studies on reconfigurable antennas in the UHF range using active components [6,7,8,9,10]. A switching matching network [11] is integrated with the RF transceiver to adjust the specified operating frequency. With the SP4T component, four matching networks can be used to connect the antenna resonator to the RF receiver. As stated in the document, the proposed structure can cover the frequency bands 170-240 and 470-862 MHz. Another study proposed a reconfigurable antenna design with tuning inductors [12]. By changing the value of this component, it is possible to change the effective length of the square spiral monopole and close the 600-800 MHz frequency band.

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RF MEMS switches are also an active component that supports reconfigurable antennas. In [13], a patch antenna with high loading of several ring resonators is proposed. Three RF MEMS switches are soldered to the rings to provide a reconfigurable frequency circuit. In [14], the authors propose a bandstop structure to reduce signal interference for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications.

Components used in previous studies provide discrete frequency sweeps. To obtain continuous variation, varactors can be used in reconfigurable antennas [15,16,17,18,19]. By controlling the DC voltage, the capacitance of the varactor can be changed. However, operation with high control voltages (up to 20 V) and low input power limits the use of varactors in receiver mode. To overcome these limitations, digital tunable capacitors (DTCs) are a promising solution. [20] reported a reconfigurable frequency antenna based on the folded IFA concept. The DTC is used to connect the end of the radiating element to the ground plane. By using various DTC capacitors, the antenna can cover the 600-900 MHz frequency band. The authors of [21] used only four states of DTC. According to the proposal, the antenna can work in four frequency bands: 868 and 915 MHz, 1.8 and 2.1 GHz.

This article reviews and presents several reconfigurable antennas using DTC components in five parts. First, the first chapter is an introduction and literature review. Section 2 presents the design of the antenna, its construction in the first section, and the description of the DTC in the second section. Then, Section 3 reports the simulation results. Section 4 covers antenna measurements. Finally, Section 5 provides a brief conclusion.

The proposed antenna design is based on a 27 × 8 × 2 mm folded monopole structure.

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, for tablet devices. The radiating element is placed in a compact space of 30 × 8 mm

In the corner of the printed circle. Additionally, as shown in Figure 1, an open tube is added to improve the impedance matching of the antenna. Digitally adjustable capacitors are soldered to the monopole. To manage and monitor this component, five lines are created to connect the DTC to the control unit. RF block inductors are used to reduce the effect of DC and I2C signals on antenna performance.

The equivalent circuit of the antenna is shown in Figure 2. A proposed antenna typically consists of three main parts: a matching circuit, a radiating element and a DTC model. First, the matching circuit is designed as an open tube at the entrance of the antenna. Changing the length or width of the element can match the antenna impedance to different values ​​of the DTC capacitor. Select the open mute size so that the antenna impedance is optimal at medium values ​​of DTC and ineffective at high and low capacitance values. Thanks to this concept, it is possible to include the antenna for all frequencies when reconfiguring the DTC. Second, the radiating element is described by a set of RLC components. The values ​​of the components are characterized by antenna shape and size. Third, the DTC element is modeled as a capacitor in series with a parasitic resistance. According to the DTC component specifications published in the data sheet, the capacitance ranges from 0.38 to 4.32 pF. According to the equivalent circuit structure, if the capacitance value of DTC increases, the resonant frequency of the antenna decreases and vice versa.

Antenna Ff Citer Application

Two similar antennas are simulated using ANSYS EM High Frequency Structure Synthesizer software. The structure is designed on a 0.8 mm thick FR4 substrate

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M is the thickness of copper. Both antennas have dimensions as shown in Figure 3. A DTC is placed on top of the monopole to adjust the resonance frequency.

Digitally adjustable capacitors are active components manufactured by pSemi-Murata (Figure 4). The product is compatible with reconfigurable frequency antennas due to its ability to handle RF power up to 34 dBm and maintain a low current consumption of 30 dBm.

A: DTC also offers peak performance and a wide supply range from 2.3-3.6V.

Unlike conventional varactors, DTC control is very simple thanks to the serial interface. Instead of using complex tuning voltage circuits for regulation, DTC uses I2C signals to allow the capacitor to be digitally switched between 32 states. Depending on the configuration, the capacitance of the DTB connected in series is from 0.38 to 4.32 pF, and the capacitance of the DTC connected in parallel is from 0.9 to 4.6 pF. In this proposal, the shunt is configured for use with a radiating element connected to the DTC via RF+ and RF−. Measure the white space capacity under different conditions using the DTC evaluation kit. The specifications and measurements provided by the manufacturer are shown in Table 1. Generally speaking,

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