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Reducing salinity and growth of bean seedlings through seed multiplication and exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
By Shaila Shermin Tania Shaila Shermin Tania Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, † , Mohammad Saidur Rhaman Mohammad Saidur Rhaman Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, *, † , Farjana Rauf Farjana Rauf Scilit Scilit Google Mklalardsur. Rahaman Md. Moklasur Rahaman Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1 , Muhammad Humayun Kabir Muhammad Humayun Kabir Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1 , MD. org Google Scholar 3
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Received: February 24, 2022 / Revised: April 6, 2022 / Accepted: April 6, 2022 / Published: April 8, 2022
Salt is the main obstacle to proper seed growth, plant growth and, consequently, crop growth. Treating seeds with different methods can actually improve salinity tolerance. Beans are one of the most nutritious and popular vegetables in the world. The literature shows that salt stress has a negative effect on soybean germination and growth. In this study, we investigated the potential of salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H).
) as a preventive and exogenous measure limiting the germination and growth of beans, which prevents salinity. Seeds from SA (1 mm and 2 mm) and H
(0.1 mm and 0.15 mm) and soak in ordinary tap water (hydropriming) for 60 minutes. Moreover, untreated seeds were used in the control experiment. Finally, the prepared seeds were treated with salt (150 mM NaCl). Our results showed that salt stress affects germination percentage (GP), germination index (GI), seed germination index (SVI), shoot length (SL), root length (RL), shoot root, fresh and dry biomass, and growth. plant The results also showed that salt stress significantly reduced the relative water content (RWC) and photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll, carotenoids, lycopene and beta-carotene. SA- and Kh
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And hydropriming promoted the growth of GP, GI, SL, RL, SVI and seedling growth. The data also showed that the addition of SA and H
Improved RWC and photosynthetic pigments. Compared with other treatments, pretreatment with 1 mM SA was found to be more effective for salt tolerance of beans. Overall, these results, through heat map and principal component analysis, revealed that primary and secondary use of SA and H
Effective seed germination and strong shoot vigor are important factors in their success, as these parameters ensure uniform plant growth and, consequently, high yields . As a result, increasing seed yield and achieving proper germination is the main goal of the seed breeder, namely improving the critical and determining level of fertility. However, various biotic and abiotic stresses affect seed germination, vigor, seedling characteristics and plant growth . Drought, salt, and extreme heat are examples of abiotic stresses that cause osmotic stress in crop plants, leading to imbalances at the cellular, molecular, and physiological levels, ultimately leading to plant death [ 3 ]. Salinity is one of the unfavorable abiotic stresses that greatly affects the germination, growth and yield of crop plants . Excess salt in agriculture is currently a serious global problem. According to the latest statistics, salt has destroyed approximately 0.80 billion hectares of land, which severely limits the use of land for agricultural purposes . From an agricultural point of view, salinity affects approximately 20% of arable land and approximately 33% of irrigated land to varying degrees, and by 2050 this figure will exceed 50% . To cope with salt stress, plants have developed various strategies and plant breeders use various methods such as seed promotion, addition of plant growth regulators, organic fertilizers and selection of appropriate varieties [7, 8, 9, 10].
Treatment is a simple technique that irrigates seeds to the point where metabolic activity enabling germination is initiated, but radiation does not occur [ 11 , 12 ]. This method can help various crops whose growth and appearance are hampered by unfavorable soil conditions. Fertilization stimulates germination by inducing various metabolic changes in seeds and increases their viability, which leads to quick and uniform emergence and strong rooting . Moreover, the introduction of seeds reduces abiotic stress in plants by regulating the activity of antioxidant enzymes, ion balance and photosynthetic properties [ 14 ]. Moreover, the introduction leads to faster and stronger induction of basic resistance mechanisms in response to subsequent pathogen attacks and tolerance to abiotic stimuli [ 15 , 16 ]. Various signaling molecules and plant hormones used in the preparation, as well as substances increasing the rate of plant germination and emergence, have been reported [17, 18]. Salicylic acid (SA) is an endogenous phenolic growth factor that affects various plant developmental processes, including germination, growth, photosynthesis, and stress tolerance [19, 20]. On the other hand, hydrogen peroxide (H
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) plays an important role in signal transduction, activating a chain of physiological mechanisms that increase plant tolerance to salt stress [21, 22]. The literature shows that rice plants have increased salt tolerance as a result of increased seed number and infection with H.
Rice seeds showed better germination and growth compared to soaked and soaked seeds. Additionally, hydroponics can promote seed germination and increase plant growth. Damalas et al.  reported that irrigation improved field bean yield. Most recently, Tanya and others.  reported that SA, H
Beans are an important legume due to their excellent health and soil-friendly properties. Kidney beans are one of the most common and common types of beans and are also called French beans, string beans, string beans or navy beans . The seeds of this bean are an excellent plant source of protein (23%), flavonoids and carotenoids . According to the USDA National Food Database, a standard cup (about 150 g) of canned beans contains 0.55 g of fat, 5.66 g of carbohydrates, 2.6 g of fiber, 1.94 g of sugar, 1.42 g of protein, 17 mg of calcium, 1.2 mg of iron, 18 mg of magnesium, 30 mg of phosphorus and 130 mg of potassium . Moreover, growing this bean is becoming more and more popular due to its dual purpose: to eat it as a legume and as a soft, ripe fruit. Several studies have shown that seed germination and the addition of chemicals under stressful conditions increase the yield of field beans, broad beans and field beans [17, 30, 31]. However, studies on the germination and growth of bean seedlings under stress are scarce. To the best of our knowledge, there are no published studies on the role of SA and H
Basics of germination and properties of bean seedlings under salt stress. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the potential of SA and H
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Petri dish and jar experiments were performed in the laboratory and in-house, respectively, at the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. In the experiment, a local variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) ‘Lal Rajma’ was collected from a local market (Mymensingh, Bangladesh). Sodium hypochlorite (1%) was used to sterilize the eggs for 5 minutes to prevent the development of microbial contamination on the egg surface. The seeds were soaked in concentrations of 1 mM and 2 mM SA and 0.1 mM and 0.15 mM H for 60 minutes.
, each placed in separate tubs and bathed in double-distilled water. Moreover, untreated seeds were used for control experiments. SA and H concentration
Were selected based on previous experiments and literature [8, 23, 26]. For each treatment concentration, 30 soybeans were soaked. IN
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