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The exponentially increasing scale of information processed by computer systems has led to the need for large storage devices that can store large amounts of data. This need was addressed by the advent of basic RAID drives, which are popular not only among large companies, but also in small offices and home users.
Recover Raid Data
RAID (redundant array of independent disks) technology is perfect for storing a lot of data and keeping it easy, but unfortunately it can’t always be reliable. Even the most robust systems suffer from various problems and can fail, resulting in the loss of important information. This article will help you understand the principles of data organization in RAID and provide other background information that can facilitate the recovery of lost files from it.
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Technical information related to RAID is generally given in terms that describe this type of storage. Commonly used terms for such columns are:
When applied to RAID 0 or JBOD, the term RAID does not describe the actual performance of these storage technologies. These storage types work in the following way:
The chances of data recovery for these systems are obvious: even if one drive of such a system cannot be read, the data of the entire drive becomes unreadable. If a single drive failure occurs on the JBOD, the entire time section becomes unrecoverable. At the RAID 0 level, this will affect all the data in the set (for example, if RAID 0 is built on 4 drives with a line size of 16 KB, after the failure of one drive, the drive will have a “hole” of 16 KB after each .48 KB restriction.This generally means that any file larger than 48 KB cannot be restored).
Note: If one or more drives in RAID 0 or JBOD fail, stop using the system and contact a data recovery lab. Only physical repair of the drive can help recover files in this case.
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If the reason for RAID failure is different from drive failure (for example, controller reset, controller failure or damage, etc.), the information remains recoverable even after the drive is logically destroyed. File. System. The only thing you need to do in this case is to collect the previous backup using data recovery software. For this, you should name the member units according to the order of the original unit and the size of the line. The data recovery software will read the component data in the same way as the RAID controller and provide access to the files in the rebuilt array.
The mirroring method is implemented in RAID 1. The data of each RAID partition is duplicated, which allows the recovery of lost information from any undamaged part of the system. The controller performs parallel read operations to speed up read access to files.
This type of storage has the highest level of redundancy and the best chance of data recovery. The only thing you need to do is to scan the available partition using the best data recovery software.
Advanced redundant systems are designed to compromise between high access speed, storage capacity and redundancy. These systems are usually based on the idea of disconnecting from RAID level 0, but the data is expanded with additional information – parity information that increases redundancy and makes it possible to recover files or even continue working with the storage afterwards. Failure on his part.
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Such systems include RAID 3, RAID 4 or RAID 7 (array set with special parity), RAID 5 (strip set with distributed parity), and RAID 6 (strip with dual parity distributed). The term “una” consistency means that information can be restored or the system works after a component failure; “Double” equality – up to two elements.
RAID 3 and similar systems use the original RAID 0 technique extended with an additional drive to maintain parity. RAID 5 and RAID 6 distribute parity across all drives to speed up the parity update process for data write operations.
Data recovery from these systems is possible in the case of an undamaged array and if one (in RAID 3, RAID 4, RAID 5, RAID 7) or up to two (in RAID 6) components are unreadable.
Note: If multiple drives fail, stop using the drive immediately and take it to a data recovery lab. Data recovery is possible only with the help of a specialist.
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If data recovery is possible without repair, you should consolidate your RAID using data recovery software that specifies the drives (including placeholders for any missing drives), drive layout, stripe size, and parity distribution algorithm. The data recovery software will read the data from the components in the same way as the RAID controller and provide access to the files on the rebuilt RAID.
Note: If more drives fail than allowed, stop using the drive immediately and send it to a data recovery lab. Restoring information is possible only with the help of a specialist.
If data recovery is possible without repair, you should choose the array with a data recovery program that specifies the drives (including placeholders for any missing drives), drive order, line size, and parity distribution algorithm. The data recovery software will read the data from the components in the same way as the RAID controller and permanently access the files on the rebuilt RAID.
Custom settings are often used to improve overall performance, increase redundancy, and for other performance-related reasons. As a rule, such systems are a combination of the RAID settings mentioned above. The most common are systems like RAID 10: multiple “mirrors” with a “stripe” on them. The mirrors here provide redundancy and the line above the mirrors increases read/write speed. Recovering data from such a system is very simple: you need to take any undamaged part of each mirror and actually build RAID 0 on it.
Raid Recovery, Raid 0
The most advanced systems include RAID 50 (stripe on top of RAID 5), RAID 51 (mirror RAID 5), etc. To recreate such a system, for example, RAID 50, the collection of each part of the lowest RAID level .(in this example, each RAID 5) and then building a RAID of the elements (in this example RAID level 0) is necessary .
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Different levels of RAID use different methods of organizing data for different purposes. Each level has its advantages and disadvantages.
RAID level 0 is the best example of data striping as it is. The term “redundant free disk array” does not describe this level of performance because it does not imply redundancy. This type of storage can have two units and more. Lines are defined as chunks of data and each line is located on the next unit of storage.
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Figure 1 shows the data set used in RAID 0. Such a scheme allows I/O performance to be accelerated up to U times (where U is the number of drives in RAID 0). This is done by sending simultaneous or sequential I/O requests to different drives (usually different hard drives). For example, to read lines 0..3 (a data segment with a size of 4 lines), the controller sends 2 read requests at the same time: to read the first two lines of segment 1 and the first two lines of segment 2 The units are working. Simultaneous reading of body and controller achieves results twice as fast.
This method of organization allows the use of almost all data storage space without leaving a need on the data area. However, the storage capacity is sometimes less than the total size of the individual drives, because the controller can reserve a storage space for its technical needs.
RAID level 1 uses data mirroring technology. Mirroring creates an exact copy of the information and stores it on a separate drive. RAID 1 capacity is equal to the size of the smallest non-space storage partition that can be stored by the controller. When the controller reads data from RAID 1, it can send requests to either drive to speed up I/O operations. The write operation works in parallel (on both drives at the same time) or sequentially (on one drive at a time, which is fault tolerant). RAID 1 does not use data partitions.
RAID 4 is the first successful attempt to make compromises between fault tolerance, speed and cost. The technique implemented in RAID 4 is based on a standard set of stripes (like the RAID 0 standard) extended with some special features to store parity information for error control. The array can contain 3 or more units. This scheme is also implemented in the RAID 3 level, the difference between the striping method being the byte level for RAID 3 and the block (sector) level for RAID 4.
Raid 0 Data Recovery
Figure 2 shows the fault tolerance approach in steps. This set of lines stores the actual RAID data. Each “row” of lines is squared to achieve parity.
RAID 4 has the same features of RAID 0 as fast read operations and a large capacity of simultaneous storage.
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